Friday, May 22, 2020

The Holocaust A Secret Plan - 1445 Words

â€Å"Conspiracy: a secret plan by a group to do something unlawful or harmful† (Dictionary). This word is used for labeling a rare and commonly vial situation. The Holocaust, a term referred to the explanation of the alleged massacre of six million Jewish people, is often labeled as a conspiracy. Those who tag the 1900’s Holocaust as a hoax are frequently known as ‘Holocaust Deniers. Debating Holocaust denial includes arguments such as holocaust documented facts, practice of things such as gas chambers, falsely proclaimed amount of Jews essentially murdered, and illegalization of holocaust denial. The holocaust took place in Germany when Adolf Hitler, son of Klara and Alois Hitler, took his place as dictator over the country. Adolf had been the leader of the Nazi party from June 29, 1921 through his death date of August 30, 1945. He took his stand as Fuhrer of Germany on August 2nd, 1934. Fuhrer, meaning leader or guide, was a name adopted specifically to Adolf f or himself by himself. The Holocaust was the assassination of six million Jews. Adolf was regularly referred to as a â€Å"mad man† but did he truly possess a mental illness? No, Hitler’s only true diagnoses was â€Å"Diagnoses of a Destructive Prophet† (Oxford). Adolf led the Nazi party to killing these innocent people because the Jews were blamed for losing the Second World War. By doing this, Hitler fashioned his enemy. In the Jewish religion, a term used to describe the mass killings was ‘scapegoat’. This meant a personShow MoreRelatedThe Holocaust and The Final Solution Plan Essay622 Words   |  3 PagesThe Holocaust, it’s such a horrific topic. Why do we study this? The answer I will give at the end of this essay, although, there are many ways people look at the holocaust, different opinions that people have, different understandings. This is my understanding. Holocaust. (The Greek word meaning Whole (Holo), and burnt (Caust). The name although sad, is quite an appropriate name for this event in history, because the Jewish people’s spirt, was almost entirely â€Å"Burnt†. Hitler’s rise to power beganRead MoreHolocaust: A Result of Racism764 Words   |  3 PagesHolocaust: A Result of Racism The Holocaust is a part of history that always brings sadness to many and unanswered questions. The word â€Å"holocaust† is from Greek origin and it means â€Å"sacrifice by fire.† The Holocaust was the persecution and murder of about six million Jews including around 1.5 million Jewish children by the Nazi regime between the years 1933 – 1945. Racism played a vital role and was the main reason for the slaughtering of millions of Jews during this time in history. Jews were notRead MoreNazi s Persecution Of The Handicapped Essay1404 Words   |  6 Pages Nazi’s Persecution of the Handicapped Frank Cai History November 8th Holocaust is considered one of the worst man-caused disaster ever in the history of human life. Hundreds of millions of people died during the Holocaust. Even worse, the victim of the Holocaust is based on race. Why did Adolf Hitler pick on the Jews? Because when he wants to rise power, one of the most common ways is propaganda. He said that Jews are the ones that ruined their country. Many Jews were killed; they were alsoRead MoreThe Holocaust : A Large Scale, State Sponsored, Systematic Murder Of Innocent Jews1327 Words   |  6 Pagesintroduce the Holocaust, I want to provide a brief overview of the event. The Holocaust was a large scale, state-sponsored, systematic murder of innocent Jews across Europe carried out by the German military and authorities. Germans believed that their race was superior to the Jewish race. Jews were deemed, â€Å"life unworthy of life†. (1) The Holocaust was a result of this strong German belief, which led to the attempted annihilation of the Jews. The German government called the plan to annihilate theRead MoreThe Death Of The Euthanasia Program1313 Words   |  6 PagesWorld War II still impact many today, grim battle scars passed down the years through morbid tales and painful memories. To this day, many Holocaust horror stories still exist, but one of Hitler s fatal racial extermination plans, a hushed whisper of the atrocities yet to come, truly left its mark in history. Launched only two years before the infamous Holocaust, the Euthanasia Program, or otherwise known as T-4, was a mass murder operation which primarily aimed to exterminate the life unworthy ofRead MoreHolocaust Was A Term That Was Formed By The Greeks Which1374 Words   |  6 PagesHolocaust was a term that was formed by the Greeks which means, the sacrifices of the Jews for their God. Some people took the word sacrifice as something not good and it evokes negative associations in the minds of the people. The time of Holocaust is a period that will never be forgotten, it was a time people struggled to survive, a time people fight for the right to live, the time whereby thousands of Jews were killed just for being Jews. The Holocaust started in January of 1933 when Adolph HitlerRead MoreTruth And Justice : A Lexicon Of Terror And The Banality Of Evil, Victoria Sanford s Buried Secrets1612 Words   |  7 Pagesdie in this fight, then so be it. But one day we will triumph† (Feitlowitz 133). There are many different aspects of truth and justices described in Hannah Arendt’s Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil, Victoria Sanford’s Buried Secrets: Truth and Human Rights in Guatemala and in Marguerite Feitlowitz s A Lexicon of Terror, these aspects of truth and justice play an important role in describing the tragedies in each respective book. The books also illustrate to readers why truthRead MoreEssay on Fearless Jewish Women946 Words   |  4 Pagesmen were going to be arrested, the women made plans to try and protect their men. They made arrangements with neighbors, hide them, obtained false documents, or planned escapes. The women and children remained at ho me, where they thought they were safe. On that fateful day, 5,802 women and 4,051 children were arrested and sent to Auschwitz. The women learned that hard way that everyone is a victim to the Nazis, not just the men. The ultimate plan was created by Adolf Hitler, the â€Å"Final Solution†Read MoreAdolf Hitler and The Holocaust Essay examples745 Words   |  3 Pagesof prision and when their president died, he became Chancellor of Germany. Hitler only wanted people with blue eyes and blonde hair to be in his country. So he started to make a plan and that plan was to eliminate anybody who didnt follow those standards. Hitler came up with this elimation process called The Holocaust. He made laws called The Nuremburg Laws and in these laws there was a list of the undesirables; people who didnt follow Hitlers standards. The list consisted of mostly Jews. TheyRead MoreThe Nazi Party1100 Words   |  5 Pagesmeeting. The term â€Å"final solution† was the phrase used by the Nazi’s for their plan for the extermination of all European Jews. This meeting was the first time that the government leaders not involved with the Nazi party were introduced to the plan for the Jews that the Nazi’s had carefully developed. The meeting was formally known as the Wannsee Conference and the minutes that came from that conference were top secret and were not meant for others to see outside of the people involved with the â€Å"final

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

How Did Jackie Robinson Make History

On April 15, 1947, Jackie Robinson made history when he stepped onto the Brooklyn Dodgers Ebbets Field as the first African American to play in a Major League Baseball game. The controversial decision to put a black man on a major league team prompted a barrage of criticism and initially led to Robinsons mistreatment by fans and fellow players alike. Robinson endured that discrimination and rose above it, going on to win Rookie of the Year in 1947 as well as the National League MVP Award in 1949. Hailed as a civil rights pioneer, Robinson was posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom. Robinson was also the first African-American inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame. Dates: January 31, 1919 - October 24, 1972 Also Known As: Jack Roosevelt Robinson Childhood in Georgia Jackie Robinson was the fifth child born to sharecropper parents Jerry Robinson and Mallie McGriff Robinson in Cairo, Georgia. His ancestors had worked as slaves on the same property that Jackies parents farmed. Jerry left the family to look for work in Texas when Jackie was six months old with the promise that he would send for his family once he was settled... but Jerry Robinson never returned. In 1921, Mallie received word that Jerry had died, but could never substantiate that rumor. After struggling to keep the farm going by herself, Mallie realized it was impossible. She needed to find another way to support her family, but also felt it was no longer safe to stay in Georgia. Violent racial riots and lynchings of black people were on the rise in the summer of 1919, especially in the southeastern states. Seeking a more tolerant environment, Mallie and several of her relatives pooled their money together to buy train tickets. In May 1920, when Jackie was 16 months old, they all boarded a train for Los Angeles. The Robinsons Move to California Mallie and her children moved into an apartment in Pasadena, California with her brother and his family. She found work cleaning houses and eventually earned enough money to buy her house in a mostly-white neighborhood. The Robinsons soon learned that discrimination did not limit itself to the South. Neighbors shouted racial insults at the family and circulated a petition demanding that they leave. More alarming still, the Robinsons looked out one day and saw a cross burning in their yard. Mallie stood firm, refusing to leave the house she had worked so hard to earn. With their mother away at work all day, the Robinson children learned to take care of themselves from an early age. Jackies sister Willa Mae, three years older, fed him, bathed him, and took him to school with her. Three-year-old Jackie played in the school sandbox for most of the day while his sister peered out the window at intervals to check on him. Taking pity on the family, school authorities reluctantly allowed this unorthodox arrangement to continue until Jackie was old enough to enroll in school at the age of five. Young Jackie Robinson managed to get himself into trouble on more than one occasion as a member of the Pepper Street Gang. This neighborhood clique, made up of poor boys from minority groups, committed petty crimes and minor acts of vandalism. Robinson later credited a local minister with helping to get him off the streets and involved in more wholesome activities. A Gifted Athlete As early as first grade, Jackie became known for his athletic skills, with classmates even paying him with snacks and pocket change to play on their teams. Jackie welcomed the extra food, as the Robinsons never seemed to have quite enough to eat. He dutifully gave the money to his mother. His athleticism became even more evident when Jackie reached middle school. A natural athlete, Jackie Robinson excelled at whatever sport he took up including football, basketball, baseball, and track, later earning letters in all four sports while in high school. Jackies siblings helped instill in him a fierce sense of competition. Brother Frank gave Jackie a lot of encouragement and attended all of his sporting events. Willa Mae, also a talented athlete, excelled in the few sports that were available to girls in the 1930s. Mack, the third eldest, was a great inspiration to Jackie. A world-class sprinter, Mack Robinson competed in the Berlin Olympics in 1936 and came home with a silver medal in the 200-meter dash. (He had come in a close second to sports legend and teammate Jesse Owens.) College Achievements Upon graduation from high school in 1937, Jackie Robinson was sorely disappointed that he hadnt received a college scholarship despite his astounding athletic ability. He enrolled at Pasadena Junior College where he distinguished himself not only as star quarterback but also as a high scorer in basketball and a record-breaking long-jumper. Boasting a batting average of .417, Robinson was named Southern Californias Most Valuable Junior College Player in 1938. Several universities finally took notice of Jackie Robinson, now willing to offer him a full scholarship for completing his last two years of college. Robinson decided upon the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) mainly because he wanted to stay near his family. Unfortunately, the Robinson family suffered a devastating loss in May 1939 when Frank Robinson died from injuries sustained in a motorcycle accident. Jackie Robinson was crushed by the loss of his big brother and his greatest fan. To cope with his grief, he poured all of his energy into doing well at school. Robinson was as successful at UCLA as he had been in junior college. He was the first UCLA student to earn letters in all four sports that he played —football, basketball, baseball, and track and field—a feat he accomplished after only one year. At the beginning of his second year, Robinson met Rachel Isum who soon became his girlfriend. Still, Robinson was not satisfied with college life. He worried that despite getting a college education, he would have few opportunities to advance himself in a profession since he was black. Even with his tremendous athletic talent, Robinson also saw little chance for a career as a professional athlete because of his race. In March 1941, only months before he was to graduate, Robinson dropped out of UCLA. Concerned about his familys financial welfare, Robinson found a temporary job as an assistant athletic director at a camp in Atascadero, California. He later had a brief stint playing on an integrated football team in Honolulu, Hawaii. Robinson returned home from Hawaii just two days before the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941. Facing Racism in the Army Drafted into the U.S. Army in 1942, Robinson was sent to Fort Riley, Kansas, where he applied to Officers Candidate School (OCS). Neither he nor any of his fellow black soldiers were allowed into the program. With the help of world heavyweight champion boxer Joe Louis, also stationed at Fort Riley, Robinson petitioned for and won the right to attend OCS. Louis fame and popularity no doubt helped the cause. Robinson was commissioned a second lieutenant in 1943. Known for his talent on the baseball field, Robinson was approached to play on Fort Rileys baseball team. The team policy was to accommodate any of the other teams who refused to play with a black player on the field. Robinson would have beeen expected to sit those games out. Unwilling to accept that condition, Robinson refused to play even one game. Robinson was transferred to Fort Hood, Texas, where he faced more discrimination. Riding on an Army bus one evening, he was ordered to go to the back of the bus. Fully aware that the Army had recently outlawed segregation on any of its vehicles, Robinson refused. He was arrested and tried in a military court of law for insubordination, among other charges. The Army dropped its charges when no evidence could be found of any wrongdoing. Robinson was granted an honorable discharge in 1944. Back in California, Robinson became engaged to Rachel Isum, who agreed to marry him once she completed nursing school. Playing in the Negro Leagues In 1945, Robinson was hired as a shortstop for the Kansas City Monarchs, a baseball team in the Negro Leagues. Playing major league professional baseball was not an option for black people at that time, although it hadnt always been that way. Blacks and whites had played together in the early days of baseball in the mid-nineteenth century until Jim Crow laws, which required segregation, were passed in the late 1800s. The Negro Leagues came into being in the early 20th century to accommodate the many talented black players who were shut out of Major League Baseball. The Monarchs had a hectic schedule, sometimes traveling hundreds of miles by bus in a day. Racism followed the men wherever they went, as players were turned away from hotels, restaurants, and rest rooms simply because they were black. At one service station, the owner refused to let the men use the rest room when they stopped to get gas. A furious Jackie Robinson told the proprietor they would not buy his gas if he didnt allow them to use the rest room, persuading the man to change his mind. Following that incident, the team would not buy gas from anyone who refused to let them use the facilities. Robinson had a successful year with the Monarchs, leading the team in batting and earning a spot in the Negro Leagues all-star game. Intent upon playing his best game, Robinson was unaware that he was closely watched by baseball scouts from the Brooklyn Dodgers. Branch Rickey and the Great Experiment Dodgers president Branch Rickey, determined to break the color barrier in Major League Baseball, was looking for the ideal candidate to prove that blacks had a place in the majors. Rickey saw Robinson as that man, for Robinson was talented, educated, never drank alcohol, and had played alongside white people in college. Rickey was relieved to hear that Robinson had Rachel in his life; he cautioned the ballplayer that he would need her support to get through the upcoming ordeal. Meeting with Robinson in August 1945, Rickey prepared the player for the kind of abuse he would face as the lone black man in the league. He would be subjected to verbal insults, unfair calls by umpires, pitches intentionally thrown to hit him, and more. Off the field as well, Robinson could expect hate mail and death threats. Rickey posed the question: could Robinson deal with such adversity without retaliating, even verbally, for three solid years? Robinson, who had always stood up for his rights, found it difficult to imagine not responding to such abuse, but he realized how important it was to advancing the cause of civil rights. He agreed to do it. Like most new players in the major leagues, Robinson started out on a minor league team. As the first black player in the minors, he signed with the Dodgers top farm team, the Montreal Royals, in October 1945. Before the start of spring training, Jackie Robinson and Rachel Isum were married in February 1946 and headed to Florida for training camp two weeks after their wedding. Enduring vicious verbal abuse at games—from those in the stands and the dugout—Robinson nonetheless proved himself especially skilled at hitting and at stealing bases and helped lead his team to victory at the Minor League Championship Series in 1946. Jackie Robinson ended the season as Most Valuable Player (MVP) in the International League. Topping off Robinsons stellar year, Rachel gave birth to Jack Robinson Jr. on November 18, 1946. Robinson Makes History On April 9, 1947, five days before the start of baseball season, Branch Rickey made the announcement that 28-year-old Jackie Robinson would play for the Brooklyn Dodgers. The announcement came on the heels of a difficult spring training. Several of Robinsons new teammates had banded together and signed a petition insisting that they would rather be traded off the team than play with a black man. Dodgers manager Leo Durocher chastised the men, pointing out that a player as good as Robinson could very well lead the team to the World Series. Robinson started out as first baseman; later he moved to second base, a position he held for the rest of his career. Fellow players were slow to accept Robinson as a member of their team. Some were openly hostile while others refused to speak to him or even sit near him. It didnt help that Robinson began his season in a slump, unable to make a hit in the first five games. His teammates finally rallied to Robinsons defense after witnessing several incidents in which opponents verbally and physically assaulted Robinson. One player from the St. Louis Cardinals intentionally spiked Robinsons thigh so badly that he left a large gash, prompting outrage from Robinsons teammates. In another instance, players on the Philadelphia Phillies, knowing that Robinson had received death threats, held their bats up as if they were guns and pointed them at him. As unsettling as these incidents were, they served to unify the Dodgers as a cohesive team. Robinson overcame his slump and the Dodgers went on to win the National League pennant. They lost the World Series to the Yankees, but Robinson performed well enough to be named Rookie of the Year. A Career With the Dodgers By the start of the 1949 season, Robinson was no longer obligated to keep his opinions to himself—he was free to express himself, just as the other players were. Robinson now responded to the taunts of opponents, which initially shocked a public who had seen him as quiet and docile. Nonetheless, Robinsons popularity grew as did his annual salary, which, at $35,000 a year, was more than any of his teammates were paid. Rachel and Jackie Robinson moved to a house in Flatbush, Brooklyn, where several neighbors in this mostly-white neighborhood were thrilled to be living near a baseball star. The Robinsons welcomed daughter Sharon into the family in January 1950 and son David was born in 1952. The family later bought a house in Stamford, Connecticut. Robinson used his prominent position to promote racial equality. When the Dodgers went on the road, hotels in many cities refused to allow black players to stay in the same hotel as their white teammates. Robinson threatened that none of the players would stay at the hotel if all of them were not welcome, a tactic that often worked. In 1955, the Dodgers once again faced the Yankees in the World Series. They had lost to them many times, but this year would be different. Thanks in part to Robinsons brazen base-stealing, the Dodgers won the World Series. During the 1956 season, Robinson, now 37 years old, spent more time on the bench than on the field. When the announcement came that the Dodgers would be moving to Los Angeles in 1957, it came as no surprise that Jackie Robinson had decided it was time to retire. In the nine years since he had played his first game for the Dodgers, several more teams had signed on black players; by 1959, all of the Major League Baseball teams were integrated. Life After Baseball Robinson stayed busy after his retirement, accepting a position in community relations for the Chock Full O Nuts company. He became a successful fundraiser for the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Robinson also helped to raise money to found the Freedom National Bank, a bank that primarily served minority populations, extending loans to people who might not otherwise have received them. In July 1962, Robinson became the first African-American to be inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame. He thanked those who had helped him earn that achievement—his mother, his wife, and Branch Rickey. Robinsons son, Jackie Jr., was deeply traumatized after fighting in Vietnam and became a drug addict upon his return to the United States. He successfully fought his addiction, but was tragically killed in a car accident in 1971. The loss took a toll on Robinson, who was already battling the effects of diabetes and appeared much older than a man in his fifties. On October 24, 1972, Jackie Robinson died of a heart attack at the age of 53. He was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom posthumously in 1986 by President Reagan. Robinsons jersey number, 42, was retired by both the National League and the American League in 1997, the 50th anniversary of Robinsons historic major league debut.

Friday, May 8, 2020

Comparison of Poems to Of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck

Poems which can be compared to the novella ‘Of Mice and Men’ is ‘The Farmers Bride’ written by Charlotte Mew. This once again explores the relationship between husband and wife without an element of honest affection towards each other leading to failed marriages. The poem begins ‘Three summers since I chose a maid’. Like Curleys wife the farmer’s bride also has no distinct identity and is merely a possession. This emphasizes the meagre status of a woman in a male dominated society. The way the poem is put is presented one could possibly suggest the farmer ‘chose’ a bride in a state of compulsion. This does resemble the scenario of Curley and his wife presented by Steinbeck in ‘Of Mice and men’ to a certain extent. The only difference is that Curley’s wife consented for marriage due to possible obstinacy as she always dreamed to be an actress but when that didn’t work she married Curley with a slight hope of things working out later. Despite being bonded together there is an element of separation and echoes of loneliness. Both Curley’s wife and the farmer’s bride are victims of loneliness and are kept apart from other as they are believed to not follow the norms of society. The farmer’s bride tried running away from the unknown imprisonment she was facing but they ‘caught her and turned the key upon her’. On the other hand Curley’s wife is also assumed to be contented with limited interaction with other as they believe ‘she don’t like to talk to anyone’. Despite theseShow MoreRelatedGeorge And Lennie Relationship Analysis871 Words   |  4 PagesIn the novella Of Mice And Men by John Steinbeck, the relationship between Lennie Small and George Milton is complex. Lennie and George are two companions who look for work and brave the hardships of the Dust Bowl and the Great Depression together. Although Lennie and George are both grown men, their relationship resembles more of a child and a single parent, or a boy and his dog. Lennie is portrayed as animalistic and childish through his behavior and Steinbeck’s comparisons. This reveals the crucialRead MoreOf Mice and Men by John Steinbeck973 Words   |  4 PagesIntroduction: I. Background A. John Steinbeck was born on February 27th, 1902 in Salinas, California. 1. Salinas River was one of the few centers for shipping, farming, and agriculture a. John Steinbeck worked as an employed laborer, digging canals and working beside men similar to characters in his novels. 2. In a discussion John Steinbeck said, I worked in the same country that the story is laid in. The characters are composites to a certain extent. Lennie was a real person. Hes in an insaneRead MoreJohn Steinbeck s Of Mice And Men1080 Words   |  5 Pagesâ€Å"I want you to stay with me Lennie. Jesus Christ, somebody’d shoot you for a coyote if you was by yourself.† The novel Of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck shows the relationship between two migrant workers in the 1930s, George and Lennie, along with the other members on the new ranch that they began working on. Georgie and Lennie dreamed of following the American Dream and owning their own patch of land and the novel revolves around the dream and the obstacles that stand in their way. Lennie, a strongRead MoreOf Mice And Men By Robert Burns1623 Words   |  7 PagesIntroduction Of Mice and Men is a simple story in regards to the fact that it only covers a duration of three days, is set in only four locations and generally uses short sentences written using a simple writing style. Its title is taken from ‘To a Mouse’, which was written by Scottish poet Robert Burns. In this poem, Burns accidentally ploughs through a mouse’s nest, ultimately destroying its home. This title gives the reader an idea of the fate that awaits its characters as its use signifies theRead MoreExplore the Way the Writer Presents the Relationship Between George and Lennie in of Mice and Men3909 Words   |  16 Pagesrelationship between George and Lennie in â€Å"Of Mice and Men† Of Mice and Men was written in the 1937 by John Steinbeck, he other well know books as the Grapes of Wrath and East of Eden, h also received a Nobel Prize for Literature in 1962. This book is set in the 1930s and set in California, his home region. During this time, the USA was suffering from a great depression, this meant that it was hard to find job because the economy was very weak, so to find job the men were disposed to go anywhere and the

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Social Problems of the Troubles in Ireland - 1994 Words

Social Problems of the Troubles in Ireland For about 150 years Ireland and neighboring countries have struggled with social controversy and segregation that has consumed society and its views, which have been labeled as the â€Å"Troubles†. Ireland has struggled to become peaceful and accept the ties it has to the United Kingdom. In every country there is hate, wars, and events that cause the population to raise up arms and try to get their points across, but in Ireland it has lasted a very long time due to Nationalists versus the government, Catholics versus Protestants, Loyalists versus Unionists, and many other radicals that believed in something greater than what Ireland was during certain time periods. Britain played a big role in Irish†¦show more content†¦Ã¢â‚¬Å" (Personal communication, April 20, 2014) The IRA is the Irish Republican Army made up of Irish volunteers since 1919. Many of the volunteers have been involved in street riots, hate crimes, and violence. They are known for burning homes and shooting civilians. (Coogan, 1993, 4) Throughout 1920’s to the 1990’s Ireland had some serious problems. New groups kept springing up, creating violence, riots, and rebellions. Around 1918 the War of Independence had begun and lasted until July 1921. (Douglas, 1999, 104) On Sunday, November 22 the event that is very well known as Bloody Sunday occurred. Assassinations and brutal killings took place; the IRA killed fourteen British officers in Dublin and killed 12 people during a football match. (Douglas, 1999, 105) Ireland’s militia grew tired of the IRA unlawful acts. In the early 1930’s the economic war began due to land payments owed to Britain. (Douglas, 1999, 118) During this time riots broke out killing 12 people, injuring 600, and driving 2000 people fr om their homes because of disputes between the North and the South.(Douglas, 1999, 129) Nationalism has been one of the leading ideals throughout Ireland’s history. In the words of Richard English, â€Å"It [nationalism] has caused and fuelled wars; stabilized and destabilized states; defined political and cultural life across the globe†. (2006, 3) Irish nationalism was based upon ancient and primitive foundations. (2006, 20)Show MoreRelatedThe troubles in Northern Ireland949 Words   |  4 Pagesï » ¿The troubles in Northern Ireland Many people only have a limited idea about what these infamous â€Å"troubles† in the North of Ireland really were. Hopefully this article will shed some light on the matter. In the past the vast majority of violent acts and attitudes of discrimination towards minority groups have been based on blacks or the Jews, often leaving religious wars to the olden day Europe. However according to research â€Å" the Troubles in NorthernRead MoreNorthern Irelands Civil Unrest : Depressive Disorders And Suicide1726 Words   |  7 Pages Northern Irelands Civil Unrest in Relation to Depressive Disorders and Suicide Elizabeth Mathews Loma Linda University Northern Irelands Civil Unrest in Relation to Depressive Disorders and Suicide In Northern Ireland there has been a political, religious, and civil conflict prevailing for many years called ‘the Troubles’ (Mahedy, Todaro-Luck, Bunting, Murphy, Kirby 2012). It has resulted in immense civil unrest and social disturbances, many being traumatic, violent, andRead MorePolicy Brief : Mental Health And Young People Essay1418 Words   |  6 Pagespolicy change in Northern Ireland on how we view and treat mental health. Although it did not free mental health from stigma it did however bring about the recognition that mental health should be an inherent part of our policy. Despite this Northern Ireland still has the highest mental health figures in the UK, Fundamental Facts (2016) published by the Mental Health Organisation reported that Northern Ireland has a 25% higher overall prevalence of mental health problems than England. An area of concernRead MoreThe Trouble with Violence in Northern Ireland Essay713 Words   |  3 PagesAccording to BBC the Troub les of Northern Ireland represent one of the latest examples of religious, ethnic, geographic and political conflict. The Troubles started in the late 1960s and it is considered by many to have ended with the Belfast Good Friday Agreement of 1998. After more than 30 years of civil conflict, peace had finally been achieved. However, random violence acts have continued since then. How did the Belfast Good Friday Agreement end the Troubles in Northern Ireland and how is the countryRead MoreIreland and Irish Immigration, 1920 to 1930854 Words   |  3 PagesIreland and Irish Immigration, 1920-1930 Irish Homeland and Government The turmoil of the second decade of the twentieth century gave way to a greater sense of peace and stability in the third, with a peace treaty signed between Ireland and Britain in December of 1921 and Home Rule finally established for most of the Irish isle (Ferriter, n.d.). At the same time, this new society did not lead to instant prosperity, and indeed poverty remained a major and growing problem in Ireland during thisRead MorePsychiatric Social Work1522 Words   |  7 PagesOrigins Social work with people with mental illness, known initially as psychiatric social work, began in the 1950s at the six county psychiatric hospitals across Northern Ireland (Herron 1998). These hospitals were administered by the Regional Health Authorities, whilst the new psychiatric social workers were out-posted from the County Welfare Authorities. The introduction of generic social work under the Seebohm reforms into Northern Ireland in 1972 coincided with the establishment of the integratedRead MoreThe Lack Of Positive Peace1348 Words   |  6 PagesThe lack of positive peace in the GFA is a major problem for the overall well-being of Northern Irish society in terms of an integrated vision off Ireland. In this context, Gatlung’s positive peace process must include aspects of religious, cultural, economic, and civilian rights for Catholics in a primarily protestant culture. This defines some of the superficialities of the GFA as a legislative and institutional agreement, wh ich do not reflect a more positive long-term peace process that integratesRead More W.B. Yeats: Nationalistic Reflection in His Poetry Essay1098 Words   |  5 Pagespoetry, Yeats confronted the reality that felt was Oppression and Heartship for himself and his Irish brethren. Armed only with a pen, parchment, and a dissident tongue, Yeats helped to ignite the Powderkeg that was Ireland in the early twentieth century. Yeats was born in Dublin, Ireland, In 1865. His father was a lawyer turned into a painter, and thus his son inherited the creative (and unconventional) genes. Most of Yeats’ childhood was spent in London, where he attended the Godolphin School. AtRead MoreA Modest Proposal By Jonathan Swift982 Words   |  4 Pagestries to present different ideas in order to change the situation of Ireland. Through his proposal, he is able to get his point across. He wrote this essay to show how undeveloped and bad the state of Ireland is and the social classes. In â€Å"A Modest Proposal†, Swift effectively uses insincerity, sarcasm, and rhetorical exaggeration to reveal his annoyance of politicians, papists, and overall citizens of poverty-stricken Ireland in the late seventeenth century. The purpose of his argument is to raiseRead MoreSocial Groups Essay1377 Words   |  6 PagesSocial groups have existed throughout time. We know that small social groups have existed in the form o f families throughout the history of human kind. Adam and Eve are said to have been the first social group. Social groups are defined as having two or more people interact and identify with one another. Some social groups include but are not limited to; the handicap, the homeless, the poor, the wealthy, the powerful, different religious groups, different races and even sexual orientation. There

Essay Bishop Free Essays

string(105) " in which the mist enters the house to make â€Å"the mildew’s / ignorant map† on the wall\." The below essay is a final draft, and not a final copy; therefore, it does not have page numbers and cannot be quoted in future publications. The published version of the essay is in the following book available in print and online versions in the Seneca library: Elizabeth Bishop in the 21st Century: Reading the New Editions. Eds. We will write a custom essay sample on Essay Bishop or any similar topic only for you Order Now Cleghorn, Hicok, Travisano. Charlottesville and London: University of Virginia Press, June 2012. Part II (of the 4 part book with 17 essays by different people) Crossing Continents: Self, Politics, Place Bishop’s â€Å"wiring fused†: Bone Key and â€Å"Pleasure Seas† Angus Cleghorn Elizabeth Bishop’s Edgar Allan Poe The Juke-Box and the Library of America edition of Bishop’s poetry and prose provide readers with additional context enabling a richer understanding of her poetic project. Alice Quinn’s compelling tour of previously unpublished archival material and her strong interpretive directions in the heavily-annotated notes let us color in, highlight and extend lines drawn in The Complete Poems. Some of those poetic lines include wires and cables, which are visible in Bishop’s paintings, as published in William Benton’s Exchanging Hats. If we consider the extensive presence of wires in the artwork alongside the copious, recently published poetic images of wires, we can observe vibrant innovation, especially in the material Bishop had planned for a Florida volume entitled Bone Key. The wires conduct electricity, as does The Juke-Box, both heating up her place. Florida warms Bishop after Europe: in this geographical shift, we can see Bishop relinquish stiff European statuary forms and begin to radiate in hotbeds of electric light. Also existing in this erotic awakening is a new approach to nature in the modern world. Instead of wires representing something anti-natural (modernity is often this sort of presence in her Nova Scotian poems, for example, when â€Å"The Moose† stares down the bus), the wires conduct energy into a future charged with potential where â€Å"It is marvellous to wake up together† after an â€Å"Electrical Storm. † This current brings Bishop into alien territory where lesbian eroticism is illuminated by green light, vines, wires and music. Pleasure Seas,† an uncollected poem that stood alone in The Complete Poems, is amplified by the previously unpublished Florida draft-poems, many of which include the words Bone Key in the margins or under poem titles; this planned volume is visible in the recent editions and is prominent in Bishop’s developing sexual-geographic poetics. In The Complete Poems, â€Å"Pleasure Seas† is first of the â€Å"Uncollecte d Poems† section. As written in the â€Å"Publisher’s Note,† Harper’s Bazaar accepted the poem but did not print it as promised in 1939. This editorial decision cut â€Å"Pleasure Seas† out of Bishop’s public oeuvre until 1983 when Robert Giroux resuscitated it in the uncollected section. Thus it is read as a marginal poem, which has received relatively little critical attention. Far less than â€Å"It is marvellous to wake up together,† a previously unpublished poem found by Lorrie Goldensohn in Brazil that has been considered integral to understanding Bishop’s hidden potential as an erotic poet since Goldensohn discussed it in her 1992 book, Elizabeth Bishop: The Biography of a Poetry. Perhaps because â€Å"Pleasure Seas† has been widely available since 1983 in The Complete Poems, this poem does not appear to critics as a found gem like â€Å"It is marvellous . . . .† Now, however, we can read these previously disparate poems together in the Library of America Bishop: Poems, Prose and Letters volume, in which â€Å"Pleasure Seas† was placed accurately by editors Lloyd Schwartz and Robert Giroux in the â€Å"Unpublished Poems† section. As such, it accompanies numerous unpublished poems, many of them first published by Quinn in Edgar Allan Poe The Juke-Box. Pleasure Seas† is a tour de force, and its rejection in 1939 likely indicated to Bishop that the public world was not ready for such a poem. I speculate that had that poem been published as promised, Bishop would have had more confidence in developing the publication of Bone Key, a volume which would have followed, or replaced A Cold Spring and preceded Questions of Travel; she m ight have re-formed A Cold Spring into a warmer, more ample volume as Bone Key. A Cold Spring ends with the lesbian mystique of â€Å"The Shampoo,† the bubbles and â€Å"concentric shocks† of which make a lot more sense when accompanied, not by the preceding poem, â€Å"Invitation to Miss Marianne Moore,† but by erotic poems such as â€Å"Pleasure Seas,† â€Å"Full Moon, Key West,† â€Å"The walls went on for years years†¦,† â€Å"It is marvellous to wake up together,† and â€Å"Edgar Allan Poe the Juke-Box. † Bishop’s writing in Florida involves tremendous struggle to express sexual desire and experience. Automatic bodily impulses contend with traditional strictures. Since in Florida â€Å"pleasures are mechanical† (EAP 49) and for Bishop counter the norms of heterosexual culture, her tentative imagination treads â€Å"the narrow sidewalks / of cement / that carry sounds / like tampered wires †¦ † in â€Å"Full Moon, Key West† (EAP 60). She fears the touch of her feet may detonate bombs. Bishop’s recently published material offers explosive amplitudes measured against the constraints of traditional poetic architecture. Full Moon, Key West† and â€Å"The walls went on for years years†¦,† in EAP are dated circa 1943. In both poems, Bishop envisions nature merging with technology to provide an extension of space in her environment: The morning light on the patches of raw plaster was beautiful. It was crumbled fine like insects’ eggs or walls of coral, something natural. Up the bricks outside climbed little grill-work balconies a ll green, the wires were like vines. And the beds, too, one could study them, white, but with crudely copied lant formations, with pleasure. (EAP 61) Teresa De Lauretis writes in Technologies of Gender about how innovative language and technology (in film) represent gender and sexuality in new formal expressions of life previously considered impossible. The new poetic material from Bishop similarly re-formulates human living spaces. In the above poem, the man-made room’s construction breaks down into natural similes. A dialectic between nature and architecture has nature grow into walls, balconies and rooms. This poetic process is found in later poems such as â€Å"Song for the Rainy Season,† in which the mist enters the house to make â€Å"the mildew’s / ignorant map† on the wall. You read "Essay Bishop" in category "Essay examples" Typical human divisions between construction and organicism are made fluid. In â€Å"The walls†¦,† divisions between inner and outer worlds crumble; for instance, white beds are studied, but are they beds to lie in, or plant beds on the balconies? Bishop writes that they are â€Å"with crudely copied / plant formations,† suggesting both flowers and perhaps a patterned bedspread (rather like the wallpaper-skin of â€Å"The Fish†). The phrase, â€Å"walls of coral,† itself merges architecture with nature, also echoing Stevens’ 1935 image of â€Å"sunken coral water-walled† in â€Å"The Idea of Order at Key West,† which Bishop had been reading and discussing in letters with Marianne Moore. Stevens and Bishop draw attention to artifices of nature, and nature overpowering artifice. The natural versus manufactured-world dichotomy is deconstructed through innovative cross-over imagery, continuing in these lines: Up the bricks outside climbed little grill-work balconies all green, the wires were like vines. (EAP 61) Vines simply grow up buildings, so we have a precedent for nature’s encroachment on man-made constructions. Here, Bishop replicates natural vines with â€Å"little grill-work balconies / all green,† a man-made architecture that looks as if it grows on its own. Then the poet surprises us again with another simile, â€Å"the wires were like vines. † The imagery of the wires blackly echoes that of the balconies; again this accretion lends the physical man-made constructions a fluid, surreal life of their own, which is empowered naturally by the simile that has them acting like vines. Vine-wires extend nature through technology into potential domains far from this balconied room. However, despite the revolutionary â€Å"Building, Dwelling, Thinking,† to use the title of the well-known Heidegger essay, this is a poem of walls, which offers temporary extensions of nature, only to be shut down when One day a sad view came to the window to look in, little fields fences trees, tilted, tan gray. Then it went away. Bigger than anything else the large bright clouds moved by rapidly every evening, rapt, on their way to some festivity. How dark it grew, no, but life was not deprived of all that sense f motion in which so much of it consists. (EAP 62) With a last line again sounding like Stevens, and yet the rest of the poem very much Bishop, â€Å"The walls†¦Ã¢â‚¬  concludes with walls between the poet’s human nature and nature’s indifferent â€Å"festivity. † The muted colors of traditional human habitation infiltrate her window, so Bi shop will have to wait, as her wishful thinking indicates earlier in the poem, for a â€Å"future holding up those words / as something actually important / for everyone to see, like billboards† (61). My essay hoists up these formerly scrapped images of alien technology, held back in Bishop’s time, â€Å"like billboards. Those diminutive â€Å"little fields fences trees, tilted, tan gray† are found in an earlier poem, â€Å"A Warning for Salesmen,† written between 1935 and 1937. Earlier poems, especially from Bishop’s years in Europe, lack wires as conduits of energy and transformation. â€Å"A Warning to Salesmen† offers a static portrait of marital doldrums; it speaks of a lost friend, dry landscape, and farmer at home †¦putting vegetables away in sand In his cellar, or talking to the back Of his wife as she leaned over the stove. The farmer’s land Lay like a ship that has rounded the world And rests in a sluggish river, the cables slack. (EAP 16) Alice Quinn found this poem in Bishop’s notebook, written when she took a â€Å"trip to France with Hallie Tompkins in July 1935†³ (251). Even if it is a poem of loss, it also anticipates gain. The slack cables await tightening. The lack of desire in the poem begs for it; Quinn notes this through Bishop’s scrawling revisions: Lines scribbled at the top of the page to the right of the title: â€Å"Let us in confused, but common, voice / Congratulate th’occasion, and rejoice, rejoice, rejoice / The thing love shies at / And the time when love shows confidence. To the right at the bottom of the draft, Bishop writes, â€Å"OK,† but the whole poem is crossed out. And below, on the left: â€Å"My Love / Wonderful is this machine / One gesture started it. † (251) This machine anticipates the mechanical sexual pleasures found in the Florida bars written into â€Å"Edgar Allan Poe ; the Juke-B ox. † â€Å"A Warning to Salesman† shows she had long been waiting for Florida. Before she slots nickels into the Floridian Juke-Box, Bishop’s trip to France includes time spent residing by â€Å"Luxembourg Gardens† in fall 1935. This poem of garden civilization indicates Bishop’s relationship with European traditional architecture; the poem begins: Doves on architecture, architecture Color of doves, and doves in air— The towers are so much the color of air, They could be anywhere. (EAP 27) While the deadpan-glorious tone might resemble Stevens, we might also think of Bishop’s â€Å"The Monument,† which was written earlier and first published in 1940; it also ambiguously provokes present explorations of art, thought and place, rather than fixing memories of the past. Barbara Page’s essay, â€Å"Off-Beat Claves, Oblique Realities: The Key West Notebooks of Elizabeth Bishop,† clearly demonstrates that Bishop’s â€Å"The Monument† is a response to Stevens’ statues in Owl’s Clover, one of which was located in Luxembourg Gardens, as Michael North demonstrated in The Final Sculpture: Public Monuments and Modern Poetry. Similar to Stevens’ rhetorical parody of monuments, in Bishop’s â€Å"Luxembourg Gardens,† â€Å"histories, cities, politics, and people / Are made presentable / For the children playing below the Pantheon† (27) and on goes a list of history’s prim pomp. Then a puff of wind sprays the fountain’s water, mocking â€Å"the Pantheon,† the jet of water first drooping, then scattering itself like William Carlos Williams’ phallic fountain in â€Å"Spouts. † Finally, the poem ends with a balloon flitting away, as children watching it exclaim, â€Å"It will get to the moon. † By employing the fluid play of kids, wind, water and dispersal, Bishop builds a conglomerate antithesis to traditional Parisian monumentality. With even more Stevensian flux than â€Å"The Monument,† this poem situates Bishop’s critique of monuments in Europe, unlike the well-known â€Å"Monument† poem, which could be anywhere, and thus speaks of a more liberating and expansive American perspective, drifting from European classical culture possibly all the way to Asia Minor or Mongolia. Also from her 1935 notebook is â€Å"Three Poems,† which works well to explain Bishop’s transition from studying the architecture of Europe to recognizing its sterile limitations and then finding her own perspective. Section III develops an emotional movement away from stultifying monumentality: The mind goes on to say: â€Å"Fortunate affection Still young enough to raise a monument To the first look lost beyond the eyelashes. † But the heart sees fields cluttered with statues And does not want to look. (EAP 19) In the final stanza a future is foretold by the promise of a fortunate traveler: Younger than the mind and less intelligent, He refuses all food, all communications; Only at night, in dreams seeking his fortune, Sees travel, and turns up strange face-cards. EAP 19) Starving (a word Susan Howe uses to describe American women poets before Dickinson), this speaker is impoverished by statues and has, as the lone alternative, future fortune in surreal night visions of travel. Bishop’s travels will fill her gypsy-heart’s desire as it expands its vocabulary in the roaming poetic technologies found in Florida and Brazil, but Paris itself does not illuminate love. In the Pari s of â€Å"Three Poems,† â€Å"The heart sits in his echoing house / And would not speak at all† (19). This inarticulate â€Å"prison-house† enables us to see why Bishop needed to travel in search of home as an idea, but not a physical settlement, as her use of Pascal illustrates in â€Å"Questions of Travel. † Her jaunt to Brazil inadvertently became an eighteen-year residence with Lota de Macedo Soares, but their home was not fully expressed in the volume, Questions of Travel. Florida was the source of sexual-poetic experimentation; Bishop’s work from there proliferates with freedom not yet found in Europe, and not written into the published poems from Brazil. The reticent Bishop did not want to be known as a lesbian poet; it would limit her reputation and her private life in the public sphere, and she likely feared that sexual expression would not be accepted in print. A poem from Questions of Travel, â€Å"Electrical Storm† (1960), strikingly indicates excitement with Lota in Brazil. Just as striking, though, is the repressive prison-house in this poetry. It reveals as much repression as it does desire: Dawn an unsympathetic yellow. Cra-ack! – dry and light. The house was really struck. Crack! A tinny sound, like a dropped tumbler. . . . hen hail, the biggest size of artificial pearls. Dead-white, wax-white, cold – diplomats’ wives favors from an old moon party – they lay in melting windrows on the red ground until well after sunrise. We got up to find the wiring fused, no lights, a smell of saltpetre, and the telephone dead. The cat stayed in the warm sheets. The Lent trees had shed all their petals: w et, stuck, purple, among the dead-eye pearls. (PPL 81) While the electrical storm is substantial, the poem narrates it after the fact, and the storm cuts off communication with a dead telephone and â€Å"wiring fused. So the electricity certainly was there, but the lightning is pejoratively â€Å"like a dropped tumbler. † And the only animal in bed is Tobias the cat, â€Å"Personal and spiteful as a neighbor’s child. † Personal electricity is not expressed, certainly not through Lent; it is spited in the society of neighbors and â€Å"diplomats’ wives,† whose nature is described as â€Å"dead-white,† their hail like â€Å"artificial pearls. † Unlike the earlier poem of desire, â€Å"The walls went on for years . . . ,† in which balconies are transformed by vines into wired energy, â€Å"Electrical Storm† displays the reverse action. Nature is hardened into artifice. Social civilization, like Bishop’s monuments, is a restrictive agent, part of the past in conflict with the newfound energy of Bishop’s tropical present. In Brazil, the poet constantly observes the natural world as vulnerable to civilization. Sometimes Bishop presents an alternative harmony, as in â€Å"Song for the Rainy Season,† which moistly answers to the repressive short-circuiting of â€Å"The Electrical Storm† by opening the door of an â€Å"open house† to the mist infiltrating the house and causing â€Å"mildew’s / ignorant map† on a wall. This poem’s erotica is played out as the house receives nature’s water. The house, with its opening to the outer environment, suggests Lota de Macedo Soares’ property, Samambaia (a giant Brazilian fern), in the mountains above Petr? polis where Soares built Bishop a studio (PPL 911). The progressive architecture of their house lends itself to the way in which Bishop’s poem has the outer environment flow indoors. More often, however, Questions of Travel traces aggressive conquests, as Bishop works through history’s impact on the country. Natural power has been contained – harnessed, mined and packaged throughout history. Take â€Å"Brazil, January 1, 1502,† for example, and note how Bishop’s natural images dialectically break down, then reach forward technologically. The branches of palm are broken pale-green wheels; symbolic birds keep quiet; the lizards are dragon-like and sinful; the lichens are moonbursts; moss is hell-green; the vines are described as attacking, as â€Å"scaling-ladder vines,† and as â€Å"‘one leaf yes and one leaf no’ (in Portuguese)†; and while the â€Å"lizards scarcely breathe,† the â€Å"smaller, female† lizard’s tail is â€Å"red as a red-hot wire. † That beacon beckons from the poem’s forms of colonial imprisonment. Breathlessness will find breath in EAP. * * William Benton’s words from Exchanging Hats: Elizabeth Bishop Paintings accurately convey the benefit of studying two of Bishop’s art forms to gain greater compositional insight into her â€Å"One Art. † In his introduct ion, he writes that, â€Å"If Elizabeth Bishop wrote like a painter, she painted like a writer† (xviii). Wires, cables and electrical technology are strewn abundantly through the paintings. Observed in sequence, Bishop’s black lines powerfully extend this emergent narrative of Bishop as an electric writer. The paintings Olivia, Harris School, County Courthouse, Tombstones for Sale, Graveyard with Fenced Graves, Interior with Extension Cord, Cabin with Porthole, and E. Bishop’s Patented Slot-Machine are marked with black lines that technically disturb nature. The bold presence of Bishop’s lines factor in virtually every painting to infringe upon nature (with the exception of the explicitly pretty watercolor odes to nature, such as the arrangement on the cover of One Art). When we align the Florida paintings with Bone Key and other published poems from Florida, we can chart the artist’s development in accord with the technological presence of wires. As with the early poems in EAP, her oft-undated Florida paintings, circa 1937-39 when Bishop had returned from Europe, depict square architecture set off by wires askew. In Olivia, a painting of a weathered wood house on Olivia Street in Key West, the modest brown house is fronted by two contrasting white porch-pillars, and to the left â€Å"like a cosmic aspect, the telephone lines form a tilted steeple† (Benton 18) connected to the proximate telephone pole. The painting comes across as a satiric â€Å"Monument. † Likewise, the next painting, Harris School (21), is topped with battlements contrasted by wispy kites flying freely in the orange sunlight. Bishop’s painterly contrasts invoke satire, rather like the parody of old Parisian architecture in â€Å"Luxembourg Gardens. † County Courthouse (23) is extremely dramatic – a transitional painting in the evolution of Bishop’s transgressive art. Benton describes it well: â€Å"A view composed of what obstructs it. The central triangle [courthouse structure] that leads the eye into the painting is at once overwhelmed by foliage. Downed power lines contribute to the sense of disorder. The scene is the exact opposite of what a Sunday watercolorist might select. It is, in fact, a picture whose wit transforms it from a â€Å"scene† into an image of impasse†(22). The palms in the foreground overpower the courthouse of similar size in the center. Nature’s supremacy over the architecture of man-made legal institution is accentuated by downed power lines, symbolizing, as often for Bishop, that our efforts to transmit information over and above nature depend on the co-operation of nature, the winds of which can knock down our voices. Tombstones for Sale, which is the cover of The Collected Prose, and Graveyard with Fenced Graves (31, 33) are filled with iron bars in harsh but beautiful contrast with flowering trees. Recall the iron-work balconies ‘growing'† up buildings in â€Å"The walls went on for years and years †¦. † These wonky walls are evident in Interior with Extension Cord, a painting of undetermined year with â€Å"the dramatic focus on the extension cord crossing the planes of the white room† (42). In here, the barren walls out-space the open door with view of the garden. The painting yearns for n ature to be let in the door. Cabin with Porthole, the next painting (45), provides compositional relief. Bare but cheerful yellow walls surround the open porthole with blue ocean view; the painter’s travel bags are casually set in order beside a neat flowerpot on the table. Travel looks homey here, made additionally comfortable by the fan plugged into the wall with electrical cord in the top-right corner. The next undated painting, Gray Church (47), is set by Benton in contrast to the lightness of Cabin with Porthole. The editor’s placement of Gray Church, the painting’s mood nearly as dark as van Gogh’s The Prison Courtyard, suggests that Benton, like Quinn in EAP, ordered a dramatic narrative sequence so observers could follow an interpretive trail of artistic development. Although E. Bishop’s Patented Slot-Machine (77)appears later in the book’s sequence, perhaps because it is more of a sketch than a painting, it would have likely been created near the time she wrote â€Å"The Soldier and the Slot-Machine† in Florida, as Quinn documents it with a rejection letter from The New Yorker, October 28, 1942 (EAP 279). These amateur works of art evince the crucial importance of publishing flawed poems, scrawl, sketches and paintings that are incredibly useful tools to instruct us about their masters; in this case we see projection of the artist’s techno-dreams. Of E. Bishop’s Patented Slot-Machine, Benton writes, â€Å"The rainbow arc at the top of the picture – resembling the handle of a suitcase – bears the legend â€Å"The ‘DREAM'† (76). This dream, rainbow-shaped, carries technology in the form of the slot-machine. Whether or not observers want to view the rainbow dream as lesbian codification, as some students of â€Å"The Fish† do with that poem’s victorious rainbow of otherness, the undeniable fact is that Bishop has painted â€Å"The ‘DREAM'† onto the handle of her slot-machine. This slot-machine is dependent upon currency for the dream of a fortunate future. Although an amateur painting, it is far more developed in terms of the progress of artistic, hopeful vision than earlier works, such as 1935’s â€Å"Three Poems,† in which Bishop is desperately scanning seas from France, and the fortune teller turns up strange face cards as the only potential currency, so the poet dreams of travel. The 1942 sketch and poem, â€Å"The Soldier and the Slot-Machine† (EAP 56-57), not to be confused with the painting just discussed, appears like an adult-version Dr. Seuss parody of E. Bishop’s Patented Slot-Machine complete with fearful alien beast atop machine in the sketch. In the poem, Bishop uses the soldier persona to depersonalize her dream, destroyed by a third-person other. Still, the persona employs first person: â€Å"I will not play the slot-machine† bookends the poem as a mantra of abstinence from the drunken slot-machine. Nevertheless, it consumes coins until they melt surreally into â€Å"a pool beneath the floor . . . / It should be flung into the sea. / / Its pleasures I cannot afford† (EAP 58). This denial and apparent dismissal through the otherness of the soldier stays with Bishop, who cannot trash her desires in the sea; they pulled on her for years even if their expression remained unpublished. After The New Yorker’s Charles Pearce rejected â€Å"The Soldier and the Slot-Machine,† Bishop recalled this event twenty-two years later in a letter to Robert Lowell: â€Å"Once I wrote an ironic poem about a drunken sailor and a slot-machine – not a success – and the sailor said he was going to throw the machine into the sea, etc. , and M[oore] congratulated me on being so morally courageous and outspoken† (EAP 279). Moore in 1964 was at that time congratulating Bishop on a moral lesson to be learned about Brazilian crime and punishment in â€Å"The Burglar of Babylon. However, the point that Bishop makes with quiet sarcasm in her letter to Lowell is that Moore missed the irony so crucial to understanding â€Å"The Soldier and the Slot-Machine. † Moore reads moral courage in Bishop’s condemnations; actually, Bishop’s morally courageous core, the one of social conformity that Moore applauds, melts in the machine. The soldierâ €™s denial to play it is weaker than the power of the machine itself, which melts and breaks into subterranean pieces – unacceptable mercurial junk that will be â€Å"taken away,† a disposal of natural, illicit desire. Travel in Florida and Brazil offers many cabins with portholes for Bishop to view the sea far away from stultifying northwestern culture. Sometimes Bishop allows the establishment to triumph, as in the balanced yellow painting of The Armory, Key West. Even here, though, wires dangle from the flagpole to create slight asymmetry. Merida from the Roof (27), the well-known cover of The Complete Poems, while a bit chaotic with copious windmills outnumbering church steeples, nevertheless illustrates an intoxicating tropical harmony. The dominant palm, telephone wires, city streets and buildings hang together nicely from the painter’s balcony view. This Mexican painting from 1942 anticipates work Bishop would do in Brazil over the next two decades, such as â€Å"The Burglar of Babylon,† which ends with the poet looking down on Rio’s crime-ridden poverty with binoculars. * * * When we contrast The Complete Poems with Edgar Allan Poe ; The Juke-Box, we can see just how much further Bishop’s unpublished poems went in configuring her relation with the world through nature and technology’s extensions of it; natural growth is given additional electrical currency to express sexual awakening, and I argue, a potentially full realization of her poetic power. Lorrie Goldensohn in The Biography of a Poetry discusses her discovery of â€Å"It is marvellous to wake up together† in a box from Linda Nemer in Brazil. This discovery and â€Å"Edgar Allan Poe the Juke-Box† best exemplify Bishop’s rewired sexuality. Quinn cannot be certain which of these poems was written first. In terms of the arc of the poetics I’m tracing here, it makes sense for â€Å"Poe’s Box† to come first because it works to loosen up the sexual expression of â€Å"It is marvellous †¦. However, Quinn notes work on â€Å"Edgar Allan Poe ; The Juke-Box† as late as 1953, and narrates its intended place as the closing poem of A Cold Spring, which Bishop considered calling Bone Key. It may have been written as early as 1938 when Bishop wrote to â€Å"classmate Frani Blough from Key West about her immersion in Poe† (EAP 271). Lloyd Schwartz and Robert Giroux date it in the late thirties to early forties period. As A Cold Spring stands, it concludes with the rapture of â€Å"The Shampoo† – a thinly veiled poem of lesbian eroticism in nature’s guise. And yet when I teach this poem to students, I often have to explain the â€Å"concentric shocks. â€Å"The Shampoo† is a wonderful climax, but it abruptly follows â€Å"Invitation to Miss Marianne Moore. † This sequence repeats the juxtaposition evident in Bishop’s letters between her lush tropical experience and her polite correspondence with Moore. Now we can envision an enlarged not so cold spring in the key of human bone warming up with â€Å"Edgar Allan Poe the Juke-Box. † This poem is filled by emanations of light and sound from the Juke-Box. Starlight and La Conga are the Floridian dance-halls described as â€Å"cavities in our waning moon, / strung with bottles and blue lights / and silvered coconuts and conches† (49). This erotic-tropical electric fulfillment sounds more like Walcott than Bishop. The poem has â€Å"nickels fall into the slots,† drinks drop down throats, hands grope under tablecloths while â€Å"The burning box can keep the measure †¦. † Perhaps to ruin the party, Edgar Allan enters the last stanza in which Bishop writes, â€Å"Poe said that poetry was exact. † This poem, though, is a corrective to Poe’s poetics, for Bishop knows for herself and Poe in the drinking establishment of poetry that â€Å"pleasures are mechanical / and know beforehand what they want / and know exactly what they want. Bishop focuses on â€Å"The Motive for Metaphor,† like Stevens, or like Baudelaire whom she was also reading at the time, knowing and tracing her desire for expression as expression. Conversely, Poe in the 19th-century tried to unite his metrical poetic exactitude with ideals of beauty while explaining his technique in â€Å"The Philosophy of Composi tion. † While the mechanics of meter involve precise measures, Bishop suggests that seeking pleasures is comprised of a more powerful mechanics. â€Å"Lately I’ve been doing nothing much but reread Poe, and evolve from Poe . . a new Theory-of-the-Story-All-My-Own. It’s the ‘proliferal’ style, I believe, and you will see some of the results †¦ [a reference to her prize-winning Partisan Review story ‘In Prison’]† (OA, 71; EAP 271). Bishop’s use of Poe illustrates her gripe with tradition as a source of monumental fixture, thus limited understanding, which has taught her well but prevents the poet from dancing at La Conga and telling that Floridian tale in A Cold Spring. Bishop wanted this poem near the end of A Cold Spring but didn’t quite get it done. The final lines of the poem deal a further blow to Poe, and by extension to Bishop herself, when she asks, â€Å"how long does your music burn? / like poetry or all your horror / half as exact as horror here? † (50). Poe’s horror stories (see Bishop’s notes on â€Å"The Tell-Tale Heart† on the upper-right corner of the draft of this poem), and I would suggest her writing in The Complete Poems (as wonderful as it is), articulate a fictional horror that only comes half-way to expressing the full pleasure of horrific catharsis available in the experience and writing of Florida honky-tonks. Who would have thought Elizabeth Bishop a â€Å"Honky-Tonk Woman†? Bethany Hicok traces Bishop’s florid night-life in her 2008 book, Degrees of Freedom: American Women Poets and the Women’s College, 1905-1955, and thanks to Quinn we have the poetic evidence in print. â€Å"It is marvellous to wake up together† is a full and complete rendering of Bishop’s eroticism. We might give Bishop latitude for not publishing this one in the Second World War period; Quinn estimates the date between 1941-6 when Bishop lived with Marjorie Stevens in Key West (267). Perhaps in the twenty-first century readers are comfortably relieved to hear Bishop express her lesbian sexuality, but in her time she did not want to be publicly scrutinized as a lesbian poet. In some respects, â€Å"It is marvellous to wake up together† is like â€Å"Electrical Storm,† since the poem speaks of sex after it has happened. Here, though, the stormy clearing is less anxious and repressive. Instead of diplomats’ wives and spiteful neighbors’ children, Bishop feels â€Å"the air suddenly clear / As if electricity had passed through it / From a black mesh of wires in the sky. All over the roof the rain hisses, / And below, the light falling of kisses† (EAP 44). Technology is god-like, hovering over their chosen house, and yet it is not alien, for the lightning storm’s electrical current of rain follows in hisses rhymed with kisses. Bishop is fully in the arena now – with the powers above electrically charging the nature that conducts itself harmoniously in the bedroom. In the second stanza electricity frames the house so readers can imagine it being sketched artistically. Remnants of past prison-houses exist, and yet the past constraints of an inarticulate heart are transformed in this reality where â€Å"we imagine dreamily / Now the whole house caught in a bird-cage of lightning / Would be delightful rather than frightening;† the pleasure of this reality is also a dream, and it remains a dream in the last stanza. My point is not simply that dreams can come true, but that this true dream is limited to this house’s electrical currents. The speaker is â€Å"lying flat on [her] back,† which is an interesting line because it suggests sex, and yet it is from this position, this â€Å"same implified point of view† that the speaker emphasizes inquiry: â€Å"All things might change equally easily, / Since always to warn us there might be these black / Electrical wires dangling. Without surprise / The world might change to something quite different †¦. † What sort of change is envisioned? The poem vaguely considers open futures; â€Å"something quite different† could be horrific or promising. Whatever change may come, these wires hang over the house, through Bishop’s poem and art as charged presences connected to future advancement. â€Å"Dear Dr. -† was written in 1946, around the same time Bishop might have finished â€Å"It is marvellous to wake up together. † It continues to wire her present into the future: Yes, dreams come in colors and memories come in colors but those in dreams are more remarkable. Particular bright(at night) like that intelligent green light in the harbor which must belong to some society of its own, watches this one now unenviously. (EAP 77) These seven lines pull together a lot. Bishop’s dreams – in Paris were quite alienated from her art-culture milieu; in Florida dreams are amplified by Juke-Boxes, liquor and dancing. There she finds physical lushness to match the dream currents that will sizzle in Brazilian experience. And yet in â€Å"Dear Dr. —† near the end of her relationship with Marjorie Stevens, Bishop is writing from Nova Scotia to her very helpful psychiatrist, Ruth Foster (286), expressing this foreign glow as an alien perspective: â€Å"that intelligent green light in the harbor / which must belong to some society of its own,† suggesting some alien technological prophesy, which â€Å"watches this one now unenviously† (77). Goldensohn writes of electrical impasse in The Biography of a Poetry: â€Å"But still the wires connect to dreams, to nerve circuits that carry out our dreams of rescue and connection, or that fail to: in â€Å"The Farmer’s Children,† a story written in 1948 shortly before Bishop went to Brazil, the wires also appear, telephone wires humming with subanimal noise eerily irrelevant to the damned and helpless children of the story† (33). This story, written late in the Florida years, is further evidence of Bishop’s â€Å"proliferal† style, the multi-generic â€Å"One Art† developed in response to family, Northern traditions, Poe, and Europe. Bishop’s evolving art comprised of poetry, fiction, letters and painting demonstrates psycho-sexual evolution found in Southern tropical harbors, far from the Northern remoteness of her mother’s Nova Scotia. These poems from Edgar Allan Poe The Juke-Box register extensively the alien vision so far ahead of what was admitted in Bishop’s present. By contrasting the reserved perfections from The Complete Poems, such as â€Å"Electrical Storm,† and the limits of history as in â€Å"Brazil, January 1, 1502,† we can see what is held back there, waiting for the more fully expressed imperfect transgressions of Edgar Allan Poe ; The Juke-Box. The Complete Poems provide intricately innovative poems that point out limited perspectives while expanding ethical imaginations of the future, whereas Quinn’s book enables readers to thoroughly explore the dream workings of a poet bursting from the libidinal confines of her time, swinging by green vines through wires of sound and light to transmit electricity for an erotically ample future. Bishop’s anxiety and longing for a more tolerant future society, as expressed in â€Å"Dear Dr. —,† can also be traced back to her thwarted effort at publishing â€Å"Pleasure Seas. This powerful erotic poem sits chronologically in the middle of her poetic development away from Europe (signaled by â€Å"Luxembourg Gardens† and â€Å"Three Poems† circa 1935), and stimulated by Florida in the late 1930s. â€Å"Pleasure Seas† illustrates the new powerful range of Bishop to be discovered when reading EAP and the Library of American edition next to The Complete Poems. As an â€Å"Uncollected Poem† in The Complete Poems, â€Å"Pleasure Seas† would perhaps sit more easily in the Poe . . . Box. The aberration of â€Å"Pleasure Seas† in The Complete Poems may explain why only a handful of critics have discussed its significance. Bonnie Costello, Barbara Comins, Marilyn May Lombardi, and Jeredith Merrin have published helpful interpretations of â€Å"Pleasure Seas. † Each critic picks up on the poem as an indication of developments that Bishop makes, or does not quite make, in other published poems. Bonnie Costello, for example, writes in Questions of Mastery: â€Å"’Seascape’ and ‘Pleasure Seas’†¦anticipate the perspectival shifts in ‘Twelfth Morning; or What You Will,’ ‘Filling Station,’ and ‘Invitation to Miss Marianne Moore,’ in all of which the poet’s pessimism is countered. In these later poems she achieves a vision at once immediate, even intimate, and yet directed at the world and questioning a single perspective of selfhood† (15-16). Costello also makes an important observation in a footnote: â€Å"‘Song’ may be a rewriting of ‘Pleasure Seas'† (249, n. 16). However, according to Schwartz and Giroux, â€Å"Song† was written in 1937, two years before â€Å"Pleasure Seas,† which then reads as an amplified fulfillment of the sad song from two years earlier. The latter ocean poem swells with pleasure in face of forces that threaten that very pleasure. Now that we can read â€Å"Pleasure Seas† in the larger context of Bishop’s struggle to write sexual poetics, the poem makes more sense and gathers like-minded poems into its vortex of desire. â€Å"Pleasure Seas† is a study of water — contained, distorted and freed. It begins with still water â€Å"in a walled off swimming-pool† (195) – another wall like the ones that go on â€Å"for years and years† in the poem from 1943. This man-made pool contains â€Å"pink Seurat bathers,† like the publicly acceptable automatons in his famous paintings, Bathers and La Grande Jatte. This viewer, though, is a surrealist who observes this scene through â€Å"a pane of bluish glass. † Seurat’s bathers have â€Å"beds of bathing caps,† again resembling and anticipating the beds inside and outside the balconied rooms of â€Å"The walls go on for years and years †¦. † Are these bathers’ heads in or out of it? Contained within a pool, they are willing prisoners of public space in chemically-treated water. At the close of the poem, they are â€Å"Happy . . . likely or not–† in their floral â€Å"white, lavender, and blue† caps, which are susceptible to greater weather forcing the water â€Å"opaque, / Pistachio green and Mermaid Milk. The floral garden colors of their caps contrast with disarming shades. That awfully bright green is â€Å"like that intelligent green light in the harbor† of â€Å"Dear Dr. ,† belonging to the alien society unenvious of the contemporaneous one. Jeredith Merrin, in â€Å"Gaiety, Gayness and Change,† asks how â€Å"Pleasure Seas† moves â€Å"from entrapment to freedom, from (to borrow from Bishop’s own phrasing from other poems) Despair to Espoir, from the ‘awful’ to the ‘cheerful'†? (Merrin in Lombardi 154). The next sentence of â€Å"Pleasure Seas† envisions free ocean water â€Å"out among the keys† of Florida mingling, interestingly, with multi-chromatic â€Å"soap bubbles, poisonous and fabulous,† suggesting both â€Å"The Shampoo† to come, and the poisonous rainbow of oil in â€Å"The Fish† – another natural being that should exist freely in nature, which is caught in a rented boat. Even â€Å"the keys float lightly like rolls of green dust† connotes geological formations that are susceptible to erosion. Everything green and natural is made alien. The threat is intensified by an airplane; a form of human technological height that flattens the water to a â€Å"heavy sheet. The sky view is dangerous in Bishop’s poems; consider â€Å"12 O’Clock News† in which the view from the media plane ethnocentrically objectifies the dying indigenes below. In â€Å"Pleasure Seas† the poet says the plane’s â€Å"wi de shadow pulses† above the surface, and down to the yellow and purple submerged marine life. The water’s surface even becomes â€Å"a burning-glass† for the sun – the supreme force of nature is harnessed as destructive technology, as with the high airplane, which, as Barbara Comins notes in â€Å"That Queer Sea,† is â€Å"casting a ‘wide shadow’ upon the water . . . uggesting some inherent anguish in going one’s ‘own way'† (191). Comins and Merrin see Bishop here pushing the poetic limits of her sexual expression. Even though the sun turns the water into â€Å"a burning glass,† the sun naturally cools â€Å"as the afternoon wears on. † Nature and technology dance in a somewhat vexed but â€Å"dazzling dialectic† here. Brightest of all in this poem is the â€Å"violently red bell-buoy / Whose neon-color vibrates over it, whose bells vibrate // To shock after shock of electricity. † Neon is the most alien of lights. As with the Juke-Box charging its place, this buoy electrifies its environment. Its otherly transgression â€Å"rhythmically† shocks pulses through the sea. â€Å"The sea is delight. The sea means room. / It is a dance floor, a well ventilated ballroom. † These lines from â€Å"Pleasure Seas† contain the charge picked up in â€Å"the dance-halls† of â€Å"Edgar Allan Poe the Juke-Box. † That poem has seedy, drunken desire releasing the inner alien; in â€Å"Pleasure Seas† it is potentially trans-gendered here in the homonym of the â€Å"red bell-buoy,† the color of passion also found in â€Å"the red-hot wire† of the lizard tail in â€Å"Brazil, January 1, 1502. † That lizard is notably female. Both poems vibrate outward into larger spaces. From paradisal waters, the poem retreats to the â€Å"tinsel surface† of swimming pool or ship deck where â€Å"Grief floats off / Spreading out thin like oil. † Natural poison spills, damages, and disperses. â€Å"And love / Sets out determinedly in a straight line†¦But shatters† and refracts â€Å"in shoals of distraction† (196). These shoals receding around the keys anticipate the homosexual vertigo of Crusoe’s surreal islands in the late great semi-autobiographical poems of Geography III, the 1976 volume beginning with young Elizabeth Bishop’s formative experience of inversion â€Å"In the Waiting Room† – â€Å"falling off / the round, turning world† (160). Pleasure Seas† ends with water crashing into the coral reef shelf – at the surface of nature, half in, half out – â€Å"An acre of cold white spray is there / Dancing happily by itself. † Out there in the sea, as land gives way to co ral reef, the poet creates a â€Å"well ventilated ballroom† to be free and ecstatic. Unlike the public spaces of the Florida honky-tonks, these pleasure seas are solitary. They are, however, natural – and thus contrast the ironic happiness of â€Å"the people in the swimming-pool and on the yacht, / Happy the man in that airplane, likely as not–† (196). This pleasure of 1939 holds the promise of liberation, momentarily. While explorations in the late thirties lead to joyful poems such as â€Å"It is marvellous to wake up together,† and the thirsty â€Å"Edgar Allan Poe the Juke-Box,† another Florida poem bids farewell, circa 1946. â€Å"In the golden early morning †¦Ã¢â‚¬  contains many of the Floridian tropes merging nature with technology. About a trip to the airport, it indicates a break up with Marjorie Stevens (â€Å"M† in the poem). As the speaker is being driven to the airport in the early morning, she reads the newspaper stories of human horror: I kept wondering why we expose ourselves to these farewells ; dangers— Finally you got there ; we started. It was very cold ; so much dew! Every leaf was wet ; glistened. The Navy buildings ; wires ; towers, etc. looked almost like glass ; so frail ; harmless. The water on either side was perfectly flat like mirrors—or rather breathed-on mirrors. (EAP 80) The water as foggy mirror is an example of how technology (a mirror in this case) extends nature to reflect for Bishop an extension of herself that can’t quite exist freely on its own, or in the social world. More dramatically, an airplane descends this early morning: â€Å"Then we heard the plane or felt it . . .† She feels the sublime vehicle â€Å"as if it were made out of / the dew coming together, very shiny. † The plane is similar to the aircraft’s technological transgression in â€Å"Pleasure Seas,† but â€Å"In the golden early morning . . . ,† it is also like a product of nature made from the dew. This simile resembles the fusion of technology a nd nature in â€Å"Pleasure Seas† where the red bell-buoy charges the sea, or in â€Å"The walls . . . † where the â€Å"wires were like vines. † These images express Bishop’s longing to extend but not quite transcend the provocative desires of the physical world. Her projections are made possible by poetic language’s explicit tropic function: it is a technological extension of reality. Bishop’s technologies blatantly transgress nature by pointing to her exclusion from it when it participates in traditional symbolic order. She comments, as the flight crew in the poem gets out of the plane, â€Å"I said to you that it was like the procession / at the beginning of a bullfight . . . † (EAP 81). Somebody’s going to die. From the outside looking in, Bishop is neither inside the plane, or remaining part of the natural morning. Always liminal, always on the move, she and her poetry are the How to cite Essay Bishop, Essay examples

Importance of the Training Program-Free-Samples for Students

Question: Discuss about the Type of training being given to the Supervisors and Managers which will enhance their Performance. Answer: Introduction For the contemporary business organizations, training is one of the key aspects to be followed to enhance the performance of all the stakeholders in the organizations. However, from the perspective of the training, employees are always given preference. It is being widely believed that, effective and proper training to the employees will only enhance the organizational performance (Elnaga and Imran 2013). However, the training for the middle level managers such as supervisors is also as important as for the employees. Effective training for the middle level managers will help to enhance the performance of the supervisors which eventually increases the motivation and satisfaction level of the employees (Lillard and Tan 2012). It is due to the reason that middle level managers are the ones who will be directly in touch with the employees and will guide them in daily course of work. Thus, if they can be properly equipped and trained then it will have positive impact on the performance o f the employees. This report will discuss about the type of training being given to the supervisors and managers which will enhance their performance. Moreover, the advantages for the given training will also be analyzed here in this report. The process or steps that should be followed in implementing the training program will also be discussed. Issues regarding ineffective management In the recent times, various contemporary business organizations faced the issue of ineffective leadership or managerial roles which affected their business operations. One of the prominent cases is the bankruptcy of the eastern airlines. In the late seventies, eastern airlines were one of the top four airliners in the American market. It enjoyed monopoly business at that time in the route of New York and Florida. However, with the change in the leadership, various issues such as, higher level of debt, employee disputes and decreasing customer service started to generate. Frank Lorenzo the new CEO was not trained enough to handle these situations effectively. His style of managing the employees created further dispute in the internal management of the organization. He followed autocratic style of leadership which reduced the employee engagement and involvement in the organization. This further affected the customer service which created bad word of mouth among the customers. The best solutions for Frank Lorenzo were to engage his employees in effective communication with the higher management to identify their issues. It may help in determining the requirement of the employees more effectively. However, in this case, the most favorable decision to be taken by Frank Lorenzo was to effectively communicate with the employees, understand their issues and modifying the policies accordingly which he had not went for. These issues ultimately lead to the bankruptcy of the organization in 1991. In 2011, eastern airlines are being bought by a business group for revival and currently they are trying to implement effective training programs for their managers to prevent the past issues being replicated. Similar issues were being faced by Uber also, regarding the lack of managerial effectiveness. In the recent years, uber faced the issues of inequality in pay scale and sexism in the organization. Moreover the human resource management is also being questioned for their lack of accuracy. It is being reviewed by some of the ex-employees of Uber that various employees are facing termination without any proper investigation. Moreover, the sexism issue is also not being properly investigated. The leadership style of their CEO, Travis Kalanick is also come under the scanner due to the ill treatment of the employees. This caused negative word of mouth among the customers and resignation of various employees as well as some of the top managers. In this case, the most effective solutions should be providing proper training to the managers to equip them to deal with these types of issues. This will help in effective solution of the issues related to the employees. Training regarding the ethical principles being implemented by the company should be given to the managers. Employees related legislations should also been trained to made them aware about the consequences about the ill treatment of the employees. In this next phase of discussion, the topic is the implementation of the leadership styles in the real world organizations has to be discussed. In the retail industry Sports Direct, there have been certain issues in the ethical leadership of the middle managers and the human resource management. The autocratic kind of leadership style was followed intensively in a certain organization. The result of this was the employees began to protest against such kind of leadership. The middle managers of the organization began to almost torture and harass the employees on regular basis psychologically by assigning to them certain amount of targets that were practically unachievable. This had led to more resignations and terminations within the organization. This reflected in the organizations productivity. Then, the directors decided to change the kind of leadership style and shifted to democratic or participative leadership style. From then on, the employees have been able to communicate with the authority and yield good productions for the organization. The parliament had slammed the organization for not giving the employees their proper reward for performance and often treating them as inhuman creatures. The most disgraceful issue in this organization has been looked upon as the six strikes policy where the employees can be dismissed for minor things such as just fetching a glass for water without authorization. The employees have revolted against this bad management in this organization and the hierarchy has finally decided to change the leadership style that has helped to revive the employee satisfaction. In the same organization, another problem arose that the middle managers were completely disorganized in terms of communicating with their seniors and guiding their subordinates. They did not follow any certain routine for assigning the tasks to the subordinate employees and look to how productive the employees are. They did not jot down anything and did not even bother use their notepads. Thus, the productivity of the organization began to decrease and the profits were lower than before. The performance of the employees was not measured properly. These issues led to the change in the working styles of the middle managers and their time management. They began to use notepads, record the performance of the employees, measure the level of profit and then communicate those figures and facts to the senior management. They also helped in ending any dispute between the employees by communicating that to the senior management. The committee that was set up to look after the methods to look after the health and safety of the employees ordered that they have to report to them. The working practices in the Sports Direct have been supposed to be excessively disturbing and this had been handled properly by the committee. The time management procedures proved to be an utter failure for the Sports Direct management team. The management team had been redesigned and the kind of time management the HR team is providing in the recent time is catering for the needs of the organization. The middle management did not implement the proper delegation management methods to improve the quality of the employees and increase the productivity. Whatever, they did was for their own benefit. Thus, the performance level of the employees began to drop off. They did not focus on the results. They used to focus on consistent delegation. They began to implement the fact that the employees must participate in the delegation process of the organization. The authority began to specify the standards to improve the quality of the employees through special training and performance management. They began to focus on results and this improved their productivity level to multiple times than the previous times. The committee had managed to give the owner Mr. Ashley to a fair chance to improve the working conditions in the organization. They said that if an employees dignity is violated, there are severe consequences for the organization. It causes mistrust, fear, anger, poor communication an d many other things that destroy the bonding between the employees and managers. In this context, the improvement of delegation management has to be improved. The trust of the employees on the middle managers has to be brought back and only then the organization can run smoothly. Mr. Ashley has to take his decisions correctly this time. Steps for implementation of the training program The first step of implementing a training process for the managers and the supervisors is to identify the needs or requirements of the training (Ferreira and Abbad 2013). There should be some sort of identified gap which should be rectified by having the proper training. It will help to design the training programs accordingly. Thus, the issues should be identified. The training program should be well aligned with identified gaps in the organizations. The design of the training should be done in such a way that the trained managers will be able to counter the identified issues (Nadler and Nadler 2012). This is due to the reason that the key objective of the training program should be the prevention of the gap rather than just enhancing the expertise of the managers. The next step is to design the action plan of the training program in terms of content, schedule and styles (Nadler and Nadler 2012). In this step, the most effective style of providing training which will be understandable to all the trainees should be adopted. Thus, having proper action plan for the training purpose will help to drive the program more effectively. The next step is the practical implementation of the training program. Having finalized all the aspects of an effective training program, now it is the time to implement it in live (Phillips 2012). The last step is the evaluation of the training program. As in the last step, the training program is already being implemented. Now the next job is to continuously monitor the effectiveness of the training program along with the difference in the performance of the managers after having the training. Feedback channel should be initiated to gather the opinion of the managers being trained. It will help to identify the issues with the programs and can rectify accordingly (Basarab and Root 2012). In this step, it is being recommended that employee feedback management should also be implemented. It will help to determine the improvement of the managers after the training program. Google is one of the most leading and prominent technology firms around the world. However, the main reason for their success is not only the service provided by them but also the effectiveness of their internal stakeholders. Google is also known for their stakeholder management. They have the most effective mechanism in determining the gap in the internal management and providing training accordingly. Thus, it is being seen that Google always remains as the leading organization in coping up with the changing scenario. Moreover, there is less incidents of employee issue in Google. From this case, it can be concluded that proper identification and implementation of the training programs for the managerial levels will help to increase the overall productivity of the organizations. Importance of the training program It is being widely known about the importance of the training program for the employees. However, the training program for the middle level managers and supervisors are equally important in enhancement of the organizational performance. Implementation of the training programs for the managers and supervisors helps to reduce the probability of the miscommunication with the employees (Jackson and van den Hooff 2012). As earlier discussed, middle level managers and supervisors are the ones who directly interact with the employees. Thus, it is important for them to have good and effective communication skill which can be enhanced with the help of the training programs (Ayab 2017). Employee issues can be reduced by this. Leadership or upper level managers may not be available at all time or they may be not being indulged in the conflict and issues in the daily course of work. Thus, it is the responsibility of the managers and the supervisors to have the expertise of solving the organizati onal issues and conflict. Training program is also important in this case also in equipping them in facing the challenges. Leadership and upper level managers will implement various employee welfare policies and ethical principles to be followed (Waller and Moten 2012). However, it is the responsibilities of the managers and supervisors to effectively implement the policies in the workplace and motivate the employees in increasing their level of performance. Thus, in order to effectively performing these aspects, managers should have the proper training of how to motivate the employees. This is another importance of the training program in the organizations. In the case of the coffee shop, customer satisfaction is one of the key criteria to determine the effectiveness of the business (Jahanshani et al. 2014). It is the employees of the organization who will determine the level of the effectiveness in the business. However, it is the managers who will determine the level of job satisfaction and involvement of the employees in the business. Training program enable them in having the skill of motivating the employees. In the contemporary business organizations, majority of the job are being accomplished by team work. Thus, it is the responsibility of the managers and supervisors to effectively maintain the consensus in the team and managing the team members to avoid any types of conflicts (Belbin 2012). For this reason, training program is important to enhance the team building and team management skill of the managers. Performance and time management are the two important skills of the managers that are quite essential for the contemporary business organizations. It is being provided and enhanced with the help of the training programs for the managers and supervisors. In the current business scenario, managers and supervisors have to manage several responsibilities at a single time. Thus, it is important for them to effectively manage their time in performing diversified tasks as well as enabling the employees in their time management (Rapp, Bachrach and Rapp 2013). Thus it can be said that, trai ning program are being initiated as a form of empowerment of the managers and supervisors (Goetsch and Davis 2014). They are being equipped and empowered in facing the organizational challenges in their course of work. Moreover, their expertises are being enhanced in diversified sectors. Types of managerial training Law, legislations and legal aspects regarding the organizations and employees are the key aspects that should be known to the managers and supervisors. Due to the fact that they are directly dealing with the employees. Thus, they should be aware about the existing legislations associated with the employee management (Hood, Hardy and Simpson 2016). It will help them to manage the employees accordingly and prevent unnecessary legal issues. Moreover, awareness about the organizational rules and regulations will enable them to maintain the organizational environment accordingly. In the course of the training program, managers should be properly trained regarding these aspects. Global organizations such as Toyota have to maintain the updated database for the employee related rules and legislations in different countries. Different countries have different legislations regarding the employee management and organizations. Thus, being a global player, Toyota has to adhere with all the diversified legislations. Now, it is not possible to look after all the legislations being followed in all the facilities. Thus, it is important for the middle level managers to have knowledge about the legislations. It helps Toyota in maintaining their employees effectively and resolving their issues at the primary stage. Awareness about the organizational policies regarding the ethical principles, goals and objectives should be with the managers. They should be properly trained about the role of the organization in the industry and the benchmarks which they have to follow. They should be trained regarding the organizational goals and objectives in order to enable them to perform accordingly (Jerome 2013). It is important for the managers and supervisors to have the knowledge about the goals and objectives along with the vision and mission of the organizations. It will help them to drive and motivate their subordinates accordingly. Though, leadership skills are more important for the upper level managers, however, middle level managers and other managers should have the characteristics of an ideal leader to some extent (Schoemaker, Krupp and Howland 2013). Thus, leadership training should be given to them in order to enhance their leadership skills. It is important because, there is a thin line of difference between the managers and leaders. It is been seen that managers having leadership qualities are gaining more from their employees as well as the performance of the employees are positivity impacted. Leaders tend to motivate the employees in accomplishment of the task; on the other hand, managers are mainly job oriented where they are bothered only with the task accomplishment without having followed the employee aspect (Bhatti et al. 2012). Thus, managers should be given the leadership training in order to induct the leadership qualities on them. It will help them in applying these qualities in effective ma nagement of the employees. The most important aspect for effective management is communication. In the present state of affairs, effective communication plays an important role in enhancing the organizational culture. Effective communication between the employees and the managerial levels is important to have the ideal organizational environment. It also helps in communicating the responsibilities of the employees more effectively. In addition, managers are being able gather information regarding the suggestions and opinions from the employees. Thus, a two way communication channel should be implemented (Shockley-Zalabak 2014). Thus, from the perspective of the managers and supervisors, it is their responsibilities to implement effective communication channel with their subordinates along with maintaining relations with the employees. Hence, communication training should be given to the managers and supervisors in order to enable them to promote soft skills and communication skills (Zhang 2012). This will help them to connect with their subordinates more effectively. It is important for the employees to have the knowledge about the customer requirement and expectation in the service industry such as, coffee shop. However, managers and supervisors should also have the knowledge about the customer requirement (Gharakhani and Eslami 2012). It will help them to initiate proper strategies with the change in the taste and preference pattern of the customers and drive their employees accordingly. Thus, training should be given to them in determining the requirement of the customers and applying strategies accordingly. Eventually the organization will be benefited by having the suitable strategies according to the changing market scenario. In the fast moving consumer goods category, Unilever is one of the most prominent players operating around the world. They are known for their effectiveness in determining the customer requirement and introducing related products in the market. It is due to the reason that they have ideal marketing research techniques as well as the managers and supervisors who have the knowledge about the market requirement. They drive their employees accordingly. Training regarding the tactical management should be given to the managers and supervisors in order to enable them in maintaining the human resource in the organization. It is true that human resource management is being managed by the human resource executives (Hendry 2012). However, managers and supervisors should have the knowledge about the human resource policies to a certain extent. It will help them in stress management of the employees and initiating safe and secure working environment in the organization. Moreover, employees will be more motivated and engaged in their workplace if the managers and supervisors are being aware about managing the human resources. Thus, it is important for the mangers to have the training about the tactical management. Training should be given to the employees regarding planning and organizing. It is the responsibilities of the middle level managers and supervisors to have the knowledge of planning and organizing the different aspects in the organization (Aubry 2014). It will help them to effectively plan and organize any strategies on the short notice without being waited for the issuance from the upper level managers. Thus, this training should also be provided to the managers. In the present business scenario, technology holds an important part in maintaining the competitive advantage of the organization. Thus, managers and supervisors should have the knowledge about the technologies being used in the organization. It will help them to guide their subordinates about the effectiveness of the technologies and motivate them in more effective use. Therefore, the training regarding the use of technologies should be provided to the managers and supervisors. It will eventually help the employees in having the guidance about the effective use of technologies in their course of work (Ford 2014). Managers being having the knowledge about the technologies will have the idea about the recent change in technologies in the industry and can amend accordingly. Customer relationship management is also an important tool in the service industry. It helps in determining and increasing the rate of customer satisfaction for the organizations. There are separate executives being employed in the organization to look after the customer relationship management (Wang and Feng 2012). However, the managers and supervisors should also have the knowledge about the concept in order to determine its effectiveness and applicability. He can have suggested potential rectification and amendments due to the reason that he will have the access of all other aspects in the organization. Thus, the managers and supervisors are the most effective ones when it comes to align the customer relationship management with other aspects of the organization. Hence, the training related to customer relationship management should be given to the managers and supervisors. Safety training is also required for the managers. It is true that safety rules and regulations are more concerned with the employees who are doing the job in field. However, managers and supervisors should have the knowledge of the safety norms being applied in the organizations (Nadler and Nadler 2012). It will help them to compare their standards with that of the industry benchmarks and amending accordingly. Moreover, in the case of emergency, managers and supervisors will be the ones who will lead their subordinates. Thus, they should have the knowledge of the safety norms in the organization. Evaluation of the training programs Evaluation of the training programs is as important as the implementation of the training policies. Evaluation will help to identify the gap or issue in the implemented training program which will enable the organizations to rectify it accordingly. Thus, the modified version of the training programs will be more effective and efficient. The various evaluation processes of the training programs will be discussed in the following part. Financial data of the organizations portrays the organizational performance. Thus, evaluation of the financial data before and after the implementation of the training programs should be taken in to consideration (Basarab and Root 2012). If it is seen that the organizational performance is being raised then the effectiveness of the training program will be proved. It will help to determine the effectiveness of the training programs. Negative growth after the evaluation will convey the issues with the training and vice versa. Employee feedback management will also help in determining the effectiveness of the training program. The mangers and the supervisors are being trained to manage their subordinates more effectively (Minoja 2012). Hence, if the employee feedback is not favorable about their managers and the organizational cultures then it is to be concluded that the training program is not providing the desired outcome. On the other hand, if it is been seen that employee performance is being enhanced along with positive feedback from them and it can be conclude that training program is having positive impact on the managers and supervisors. Customer feedback management can also be used to determine the effectiveness of the training program (Minoja 2012). The relationship between the customers and the managers is on a chain basis. It is due to the reason that customer satisfaction level will get increased if they are provided better and effective service. Moreover, the service will be more effective if the employees are motivated and satisfied with their respective job roles. Now, the responsibilities of the managers and supervisors are to enhance the level of motivation among their employees. Thus, if the customer feedback is negative, then is can be assumed that they customer service are not being effectively provided, which denotes that managers and supervisors cannot able to manage their employees. Hence, training programs should be modified accordingly. Trainee feedback is also an effective tool for evaluation of the effectiveness of the training program (Minoja 2012). Trainees are being referred to the managers and supervisors who are given training. Their feedback is also important in evaluation of the programs. They will have the most authentic and practical feedback regarding the training programs. Thus, identification of the issues will be more accurate if the information can be gathered from the trainees. Importance of middle level management Middle level management is one of the most important aspect for running a team smoothly and achieving organizational success, it is, therefore, very important to develop a proper leadership style for the middle level managers or the supervisors (Trapp 2014). These people help to establish a relation between the top management team and the lower level managers. The middle managers occupy the central position in the hierarchical tree of any organization. They work as the subordinates of the senior management team but they are lower than the lower level operations employees. The middle managers take orders from the top level managers and implement them so that the organization can function better (Trapp 2014). They also provide guidance to the lower level employees so that they act as the mentors for the teams and provide them with proper advice to gain the organizational sustainability (Thomas and Lamm 2012). Different leadership styles In this part of the paper, different leadership styles have to be discussed for the real organizations in the light of the middle level managers and how they have to be properly implemented on them (Giltinane 2013). Leadership styles are the stepping stones for the managers to take the organizations towards success and this is the preliminary demand for the organizational success (Dez-Martn, Prado-Roman and Blanco-Gonzlez 2013). Autocratic leadership This kind of leadership concentrates on the fact that the leaders or the managers take all the decisions by themselves. They do not consult with anyone in this process. In this process, the managers hold the supreme authority and impose their will on the employees forcibly (Rast, Hogg and Giessner 2013). No one else has the audacity or courage to challenge the decision of the employees. This form of leadership can be every effective sometimes when the employees need close supervision to complete the tasks they are assigned with. However, a negative impact can be felt among the creative employees. If the middle managers try to implement their decisions authoritatively on the employees, this can have a negative impact on the minds of the employees and therefore lead them to lose their confidence (Rast, Hogg and Giessner 2013). They may also lose the faith on their leaders if the middle managers are trained in this way to impose their will on the lower level employees. This may also rui n the reputation of the middle managers in the organizations. Participative leadership This kind of leadership is also called the democratic leadership style. The participative leadership style demands for the input of other employees (Buble, Juras and Mati? 2014). This is considered as one of the most effective leadership styles in the real organizations. They tend to consult with the employees and peers for their suggestions and recommendations. The leader himself participates in the process of consultation but the final decision making power is on the leader himself (Buble, Juras and Mati? 2014). If the supervisors or the middle managers can practice this leadership styles, they can get inputs from the other employees within the organization. This will be helpful for them to provide their own views and ideas about the topic. They may come up with better solutions that can be implemented in the organizations to have better results. The supervisor will cumulate all the suggestions from the employees and then take the final decision by judging the usefulness of those d ecisions (Buble, Juras and Mati? 2014). Transactional leadership Another kind of leadership style that can be implemented in the real world organization is the transactional leadership style. In this sort of leadership, managers use the reward or punishment method for evaluating the performance of the employees. In short, this is the performance based management style (Chaudhry and Javed 2012). The managers either give rewards or inflict punishment on the employees based on their performance and contribution towards the growth of their organization. This measurement of the performance depends on the way how the tasks given to them have been performed. The managers and the teams have to set their objectives together to work on the same page. The employees follow the decision of the management and achieve those objectives (Chaudhry and Javed 2012). If the middle managers or the supervisors follow this kind of leadership style, they must coordinate between themselves and the employees. The middle managers must possess the powers to rectify the mistak es of the employees or train them properly. This style helps to meet the challenges when an organization needs to take some measures in a short-term period (Chaudhry and Javed 2012). The supervisors can apply this as it will be helpful to set up coordination between them and the employees. This will also help them to meet the challenges that arise in the organization for failing to achieve the targets. Transformational leadership The transformational leadership style is one of the main components of leading the organization towards success. This style requires high level communication between the employees and the top level management (Garca-Morales, Jimnez-Barrionuevo and Gutirrez-Gutirrez 2012). The top level managers motivate their subordinates i.e. the middle managers and the middle managers motivate their subordinates to achieve the objectives of the organization. The leaders or the managers give tasks to the employees and they finish it within the given time. If the supervisors or the middle managers follow this style, they will gain the skills for motivating the employees which in turn will benefit their skill development in the future (Garca-Morales, Jimnez-Barrionuevo and Gutirrez-Gutirrez 2012). The employees will benefit as well and this will result in organizational excellence (Goetsch and Davis 2014). In this next phase of discussion, the topic is the implementation of the leadership styles in the real world organizations has to be discussed. In the retail industry, the autocratic kind of leadership style was followed intensively in a certain organization. The result of this was the employees began to protest against such kind of leadership. The middle managers of the organization began to almost torture and harass the employees on regular basis psychologically by assigning to them certain amount of targets that were practically unachievable. This had led to more resignations and terminations within the organization. This reflected in the organizations productivity. Then, the directors decided to change the kind of leadership style and shifted to democratic or participative leadership style. From then on, the employees have been able to communicate with the authority and yield good productions for the organization. Time management Time management is indeed a very important element for the managers and they need to improve it every time as the fact of achieving the goals within a proper time (Whetten and Cameron 2014). Some of the ways in which the middle managers can improve their time management are:- Organizing the to-do list properly The middle managers must organize their to-do things properly and on perfect time. They should maintain a notepad with them all the time so that they can note down all the important things that occur to them as handy on particular times (Buller and McEvoy 2012). Then, they have to categorize their to-do things and follow up on them at regular intervals. The supervisors should give proper time for the each task being assigned and check them off properly. They should pay attention to their other responsibilities as well. Focus on one type of action at a time When a supervisor or the middle manager makes all types of things together like making phone calls, answering to emails, writing proposals, it is not at all productive as much is expected (March 2013). They should always do one type of task first like making all the phone calls one by one, completing them they should switch their gears to write proposals and then finally answer the emails. This will increase their productivity and improve their time management skills. This way they can save their time as well. Elimination of distractions The middle managers need to respond to the crisis that arise in the organization and answer to the queries of the subordinates within the fixed time (March 2013). The employees of the lower designation seek the help of the managers so that they can solve the problems. They also should not hesitate to allot time for themselves and they can block the time using voice mail, turning off email notifications and instant messaging options (March 2013). They also try to stay off from social networks when they can solve their work problems. Plan for and take breaks The middle managers or the supervisors must also allot some time for themselves to relax and chill themselves at a certain time of a day (Ambrus, Baranovskyi and Kolb 2015). This is because if they get involved in work all through, their creativity level and production rate may fall because of tiredness. This will actually help them to recharge themselves and get back to work in a refreshed mood. They do not need to handle all the tasks as it comes to the. Rather they should save time to do the bigger tasks after completing small things instantly (Ambrus, Baranovskyi and Kolb 2015). Communicate If the supervisors are focusing on time management, they can let the part of communication slide a bit. They should always ask themselves if they are utilizing the time properly by doing just things (Ambrus, Baranovskyi and Kolb 2015). If the supervisors feel that they are not doing the best use of time, they can shift their work to something else that is more important. They can record your thoughts on their minds, conversations with the employees and activities in the office so that they can assess how much time they spent on each task. They should also learn to schedule their time to communicate with others on tasks with high priority (Ambrus, Baranovskyi and Kolb 2015). In the same organization, another problem arose that the middle managers were completely disorganized in terms of communicating with their seniors and guiding their subordinates. They did not follow any certain routine for assigning the tasks to the subordinate employees and look to how productive the employees are. They did not jot down anything and did not even bother use their notepads. Thus, the productivity of the organization began to decrease and the profits were lower than before. The performance of the employees was not measured properly. These issues led to the change in the working styles of the middle managers and their time management. They began to use notepads, record the performance of the employees, measure the level of profit and then communicate those figures and facts to the senior management. They also helped in ending any dispute between the employees by communicating that to the senior management. Delegation management An effective and prioritized delegation management style can benefit the managers, the employees and the organization as a whole. The most important benefit for this is the better quality of work within the organization (Williams 2013). In the delegation management, the tasks are allocated to the employees who are aware about the products and the services. Employees may be able to do a better job because they can feel a personal accountability with the work and the responsibility is on the individual who has made the delegation. The managers who are engaged in this also receive some personal benefits (Williams 2013). The effects of applying delegation management by the middle managers can be discussed in the following manner:- Allowing employees to take part in the delegation process The middle managers should be able to find the employees who are committed to their assignments and therefore are designed for success. The managers should give the employees full permission as to when and how they can complete their assigned tasks. Participation of the employees should be able to communicate with the supervisors (Young 2013). Specification of standards The middle managers should be able to specify the standards of the work for the employees. They should consider the limitations of the subordinate employees by gathering the information and making a decision. Before the act of delegation is committed, the supervisors or the middle managers should be able to discuss and negotiate about the task with the employees before they accept them (Young 2013). Authority and balance responsibility One of the errors the supervisors make to implement delegation management is to delegate the work but do not match the responsibilities with the freedom and authoritative implementation of the subject (May 2013). Middle managers can also avoid this problem by discussing the whole issue with the employees before delegating the work. The middle managers can also ask the employees about what kind of resources they need to complete the task and then permit them to secure those resources to complete the task (May 2013). Consistent delegation Another implementation of delegation management comes when the supervisors or the middle managers can delegate their work in times of extra work and stress. This is a signal that the employees are used by the managers for their own benefits (Ambrus, Baranovskyi and Kolb 2015). The supervisors can also delegate the work to develop the skills and build a pool of talent. Focus on results The supervisors and the middle managers should review and evaluate the results of the assignment. The middle managers should not supervise the employees too much closely because this action may cause frustration in them (Ambrus, Baranovskyi and Kolb 2015). The middle managers should ensure the process and the result of the delegation is consistent with the organizational objectives. Upward delegation When the supervisors delegate the work, they make the workers more skilled. The process of upward delegation starts when the employees ask to the middle managers for help or assistance in solving the problem about any task (Ambrus, Baranovskyi and Kolb 2015). The middle managers can have efficient delegation measures by which they can become sincere managers in the organizations. Thus, the delegation management can be attributed to the middle managers (Ambrus, Baranovskyi and Kolb 2015). The middle management did not implement the proper delegation management methods to improve the quality of the employees and increase the productivity. Whatever, they did was for their own benefit. Thus, the performance level of the employees began to drop off. They did not focus on the results. They used to focus on consistent delegation. They began to implement the fact that the employees must participate in the delegation process of the organization. The authority began to specify the standards to improve the quality of the employees through special training and performance management. They began to focus on results and this improved their productivity level to multiple times than the previous times. Recommendations Training should be given according to the organizational goals and objectives. It should equip the managers and supervisors in meeting the organizational challenge. Trainers should have the proper knowledge about the training to be given. They should have the knowledge of the action plan of the training program. Communication should be effective between the trainers and trainees in order to promote ideal two way communication. It will enable the trainees to convey their issues with the trainers. Holistic approach should have been implemented in the training program. It will help to enhance the diversified expertise among the managers and supervisors. Higher management should have the connection with the training program. It will help to determine the effectiveness of the training program by them and requirement of them will be properly conveyed to the trainees. Conclusion Having discussed about the training programs to be given to the managers and supervisors, it can be concluded that training should be designed according the organizational objectives. Proper and effective training helps to equip the managers and supervisors in facing organizational challenges. The paper can be concluded in the way that the training for the delegation management and time management for the supervisors and the middle managers is very important. The leadership styles that are important and effective for the organizational success must be followed by the middle managers and the supervisors. 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